Prima pagină > Cântările Ortodoxiei > 4 iulie: TROPARUL ŞI VIAŢA SF. ANDREI ARHIEP. CRETEI (Gr, Ro, En)

4 iulie: TROPARUL ŞI VIAŢA SF. ANDREI ARHIEP. CRETEI (Gr, Ro, En)

Απολυτίκιο του Αγ. Ανδρέου Αρχ. Κρήτης – 04 ΙΟΥΛΙΟΥ

Troparul şi Viaţa Sf. Andrei Arhiep. Cretei

4 iulie

 

Pomenirea celui dintre sfinti Parintelui nostru Andrei din Ierusalim, arhiepiscopul Cretei.

Andrei Criteanul si Maria EgipteancaSfântul Parinte Andrei s-a nascut la Damasc in jurul anului 660.  Cel care avea sa fie numit „cel mai armonios dintre melozi” s-a aflat  fara grai in primii sapte ani ai vietii sale. Scapat de aceasta infirmitate prin Sfânta Impartasanie, arata incepind de atunci un talent de exceptie, in special in arta vorbirii intelepte si a studiului Sfintei Scripturi. Parintii sai il incredintara ca  slujitor bisericii Invierii la Ierusalim (dupa unii ar fi devenit calugar la Saint Sabas, unde a si studiat) iar cel care se afla in tronul patriarhal, Teodor (674-686), facu din Andrei fiul sau spiritual.  Intuise in el asemenea calitati incit voia sa il pregateasca drept succesor al sau si il numi, in ciuda vârstei sale fragede, notar al Patriarhiei, dându-i responsabilitatea tuturor problemelor bisericesti. In aceasta calitate, la putin timp de la  cel de-al Saselea Sfânt Sinod Ecumenic (prin 685), Andrei fu trimis la Constantinopol, cu doi sfinti batrâni, pentru a prezenta imparatului si Patriarhului marturia de credinta a Bisericii sale, manifestându-si adeziunea la condamnarea ereziei monotelite (Biserica din Ierusalim,  ocupata in vremea aceea de catre arabi, nu a putut sa trimita decât un singur reprezentant la Sinod).

Ceilalti doi reprezentanti s-au intors in Palestina, dar Sfântul Andrei ramase in capitala, gasind acolo conditii mai prielnice rugaciunii, studiului si activitatilor apostolicesti pentru care Dumnezeu il pregatise. Duse pentru o vreme o viata retrasa, dar adevarul nu putea sa ramâna multa vreme ascuns sub oboroc, astfel purtarea sa plina de sfintenie si forta cuvintelor sale folosita intru mântuirea sufletelor ajunsera repede la urechile imparatului si ale Patriarhului, si fu numit Diacon al Marii Biserici. Ii fu incredintat postul de  responsabil al orfelinatului Sfântul Paul si al ospiciului pentru saraci ce se afla in cartierul Eugenios.  Timp de aproape 20 de ani, dovedi multa perseverenta la conducerea acestor institutii de binefacere,  pe care le dezvolta si le transforma in ostrov al mântuirii, prin indemnarea oamenilor la pocainta si la practicarea virtutii. Reusi atât de bine in aceasta sarcina, incât in 711 fu consacrat Arhiepiscop al Cretei. Dar inainte de a se putea instala in scaunul sau, cum se gasea inca in capitala, Philippikos uzurpa tronul, il destitui pe Patriarhul Cyrus si il puse in locul acestuia pe Ioan al Saselea., dându-i drept misiune sa anuleze hotarârile celui de-al Saselea Sinod si sa reânvieze erezia monotelita. Sub presiunea autoritatilor, Sfântul Andrei trebui sa incuviinteze toate acestea ; dar imediat ce Philippikos fu indepartat de la putere (713), el se retracta si marturisi fara ocolisuri adevarata credinta despre cele doua vointe ale lui Hristos.

Inca din ziua instalarii sale in Catedrala din Gortina, Sfântul Pastor isi incuraja Preotii sa se apropie cu demnitate de Dumnezeu si sa devina primitori ai  harului sau, pentru a fi capabili sa transmita credinciosilor aceasta lumina. Pronunta un mare numar de predici in cinstea sarbatorilor Domnului, ale Maicii Domnului sau ale Sfintilor, care constituie una din cele mai pretioase mosteniri ale literaturii patristice ; pentru a incununa cu demnitate festivitatile Bisericii sale, el compuse, cu o arta de neasemuit, nenumarate imnuri ramase in cartile noastre liturgice.

El este in special autorul Canonului celui Mare care, cântat in fiecare an in timpul Postului Mare, nu a incetat, de secole incoace, sa dea nastere in rândul  credinciosilor la mântuitoare lacrimi de pocainta. In acest imn impunator, pentru care a si primit titlul de „Initiator in tainele pocaintei”, sfântul evoca toate personajele Vechiului si Noului Testament care pot fi luate drept modele spre calea intoarcerii la credinta si la cainta. Pe cel care se pocaieste si care la inceputul Postului s-a recunoscut in Adam asteptând la portile Raiului, aceste exemple scoase din Scriptura il fac sa realizeze ca – recapitulând prin  viata sa pacatele lumii intregi – numai in lacrimi, post si rugaciune trebuie asteptata izbavirea prin Hristos, Mântuitorul intregii omeniri.

In afara acestor indeletniciri de predicator si melodic, Sfântul Andrei renova biserici si manastiri, fonda o biserica, inchinata Maicii Domnului din Vlaherne,  in amintirea acestei  renumite biserici din Constantinopol. Organiza de asemenea un ospiciu pentru bolnavi, batrâni si nevoiasi, pe care il intretinea nu numai financiar ci il si vizita adesea, ingrijind pe infirmi cu mâinile lui si procurând tuturor  minunata mângâiere prin cuvintele sale.

Cu ocazia unuia din desele atacuri arabe impotriva insulei Creta, Sfântul Ierarh, refugiat in fortareata impreuna cu poporul sau, reusi sa ii indeparteze pe agresori prin singura puterea rugaciunii sale si multi dintre ei pierira in dezordinea creata. Cu alte ocazii, el scapa insula de seceta, prin suvoiul lacrimilor sale si alunga o epidemie transformându-se in medic al tuturor prin rugaciune si priveghere. 

Desi devenise totul pentru toti asemeni lui Hristos, el trebui sa isi paraseasca eparhia pentru a se duce la Constantinopol. Acolo puse bazele poporului prieten al lui Hristos prin invatatura sa ortodoxa despre inchinarea la Sfintele Icoane, amenintata in acele timpuri de catre imparatul Leon al Treilea.  Primind semn de la Dumnezeu despre apropierea sfârsitului sau, ii reuni pe cei apropiati lui si ii anunta ca Episcopatul sau nu il va revedea in viata. La putin timp dupa aceea, se imbarca spre Creta si, facând escala in insula Mitilene, (dupa altii, ar fi fost trimis in exil la Mitilene de catre imparatul Leon III, din cauza ca apara Sfintele Icoane) isi gasi odihna la 4 iulie 740.

«Ζηλοῦτε τὰ πνευματικά». Νὰ ἐπιθυμεῖτε μὲ ζῆλο τὰ πνευματικὰ χαρίσματα. Τέτοιο ζῆλο σὲ ὅλη του τὴν ζωὴ εἶχε καὶ ὁ ἅγιος  Ἀνδρέας.

Ἀπὸ τοὺς μεγάλους ἐκκλησιαστικοὺς ποιητὲς ὁ Ἀνδρέας, γεννήθηκε στὴν Δαμασκὸ ἀπὸ γονεῖς εὐσεβεῖς, τὸν Γεώργιο καὶ τὴν Γρηγορία. Σὲ ἡλικία 15 χρονῶν, κατατάχθηκε στὸν κλῆρο (ἀναγνώστης) τοῦ πατριαρχικοῦ θρόνου τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων, ἀπὸ τὸν τότε Πατριάρχη Θεόδωρο.

Στὴν Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ Ἀνδρέας διακρίθηκε γιὰ τὴν μόρφωση καὶ τὴν ἀρετή του μεταξὺ τῶν ἁγιοταφιτῶν πατέρων, γι’ αὐτὸ καὶ τὸν προέκριναν νὰ σταλεῖ στὴν Κωνσταντινούπολη, γιὰ τὴν ἕκτη Οἰκουμενικὴ Σύνοδο κατὰ τῶν Μονοφυσιτῶν. Μετὰ τὸ τέλος τῆς Συνόδου, ὁ Ἀνδρέας παρέμεινε στὴ βασιλεύουσα, ὅπου χειροτονήθηκε διάκονος καὶ διορίσθηκε διευθυντὴς τοῦ ὀρφανοτροφείου «Ἅγιος  Παῦλος». Ἡ ἔξοχη ἐπιμέλεια ποὺ ἀνέπτυξε στὸ φιλανθρωπικὸ αὐτὸ ἵδρυμα, τὸν ἀνέδειξε ἀρχιεπίσκοπο Κρήτης.

Ἀφοσιωμένος στὰ καθήκοντα τῆς νέας του θέσης, ἀναδείχθηκε μέγας ἐκκλησιαστικὸς διοικητής, ἀλλὰ καὶ λαμπρὸς διδάσκαλος καὶ ρήτορας. Γι’ αὐτὸ καὶ ὅλο του τὸ ποιμνίο τὸν θεωροῦσε πραγματικὰ πατέρα.

Ἀλλὰ ὡς μητροπολίτης πῆρε μέρος στὴν σύνοδο ποὺ συγκάλεσε ὁ Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης (712) καὶ ὑποστήριξε τὸν Μονοφυσιτισμό, ἀλλὰ ἐπανῆλθε στὴν ὀρθὴ πίστη μετὰ τὸν θάνατο τοῦ Βαρδάνη. Στὸ γυρισμὸ ἀπὸ τὴν Κωνσταντινούπολη, ὅπου εἶχε πάει γιὰ διάφορες ὑποθέσεις, πέθανε (740 μ.Χ.) ἐπάνω στὸ καράβι. Τὸν ἔθαψαν στὴν Ἐρεσσὸ τῆς Μυτιλήνης, στὸ ναὸ τῆς Ἁγίας Ἀναστασίας.
Νὰ σημειώσουμε ἐπίσης, ὅτι ὁ Ἅγιος Ἀνδρέας, συνέθεσε καὶ ἀρκετὰ μουσικὰ τροπάρια καὶ κανόνες. Ἕνα ἀπὸ τὰ σπουδαία ἔργα τοῦ εἶναι καὶ ὁ Μέγας Κανόνας, ποὺ ψάλλεται τὴν Πέμπτη της Ε’ ἑβδομάδος Νηστειῶν τῆς Μ. Τεσσαρακοστῆς.

Ἀπολυτίκιον. Ἦχος πλ. α’. Τὸν συνάναρχον Λόγον.
Τοῦ Δαβὶδ τὴν κινύραν Πάτερ μιμούμενος, ἐν Ἐκκλησίᾳ Ὁσίων προσᾴδεις ᾆσμα καινόν, ὡς σοφὸς ὑφηγητὴς τοῦ θείου Πνεύματος· σὺ γὰρ ἐβρόντησας ἡμῖν, τὰς τῆς χάριτος ᾠδὰς, καὶ λόγον δικαιοσύνης, Ἀνδρέα Πατέρων κλέος, πρὸς σωτηρίαν τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν.

Κοντάκιον. Ἦχος β’. Τὰ ἄνω ζητῶν.
Σαλπίσας τρανῶς, τὰ θεῖα μελῳδήματα, ἐδείχθης φωστήρ, τῷ κόσμῳ τηλαυγέστατος, τῷ φωτὶ λαμπόμενος, τῆς Τριάδος Ἀνδρέα Ὅσιε· ὅθεν πάντες βοῶμέν σοι· Μὴ παύσῃ πρεσβεύων, ὑπὲρ πάντων ἡμῶν.

Μεγαλυνάριον.
Χαίροις εὐσεβείας θεῖος αὐλός, καὶ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας, θεορρήμων ὑφηγητής· χαίροις ὁ ἐν λόγοις, καὶ ᾄσμασιν ἐνθέοις, Τριάδα μεγαλύνων, Ἀνδρέα πάνσοφε.

Saint Andrew, Archbishop of Crete, was born in the city of Damascus into a pious Christian family. Up until seven years of age the boy was mute and did not talk. However, after communing the Holy Mysteries of Christ he found the gift of speech and began to speak. And from that time the lad began earnestly to study Holy Scripture and the discipline of theology.

At fourteen years of age he went off to Jerusalem and there he accepted monastic tonsure at the monastery of St Sava the Sanctified. St Andrew led a strict and chaste life, he was meek and abstinent, such that all were amazed at his virtue and reasoning of mind. As a man of talent and known for his virtuous life, over the passage of time he came to be numbered among the Jerusalem clergy and was appointed a secretary for the Patriarchate – a writing clerk. In the year 680 the locum tenens of the Jerusalem Patriarchate, Theodore, included archdeacon Andrew among the representatives of the Holy City sent to the Sixth Ecumenical Council, and here the saint contended against heretical teachings, relying upon his profound knowledge of Orthodox doctrine. Shortly after the Council he was summoned back to Constantinople from Jerusalem and he was appointed archdeacon at the church of Hagia Sophia, the Wisdom of God. During the reign of the emperor Justinian II (685-695) St Andrew was ordained bishop of the city of Gortineia on the island of Crete. In his new position he shone forth as a true luminary of the Church, a great hierarch – a theologian, teacher and hymnographer.

St Andrew wrote many liturgical hymns. He was the originator of a new liturgical form – the canon. Of the canons composed by him the best known is the Great Penitential Canon, including within its 9 odes the 250 troparia recited during the Great Lent. In the First Week of Lent at the service of Compline it is read in portions (thus called „methymony” [trans. note: from the useage in the service of Compline of the „God is with us”, in Slavonic the „S’nami Bog”, or in Greek „Meth’ Humon ho Theos”, from which derives „methymony”], and again on Thursday of the Fifth Week at the All-night Vigil during Matins.

St Andrew of Crete gained renown with his many praises of the All-Pure Virgin Mary. To him are likewise ascribed: the Canon for the feast of the Nativity of Christ, three odes for the Compline of Palm Sunday and also in the first four days of Holy Passion Week, as well as verses for the feast of the Meeting of the Lord, and many another church-song. His hynographic tradition was continued by the churchly great melodists of following ages: Saints John of Damascus, Cosma of Maium, Joseph the Melodist, Theophan the Written-upon. There have also been preserved edifying Sermons of St Andrew for certain of the Church feasts.

Church historians are not of the same opinion as to the date of death of the saint. One suggests the year 712, while others – the year 726. He died on the island of Mytilene, while returning to Crete from Constantinople, where he had been on churchly business. His relics were transferred to Constantinople. In the year 1350 the pious Russian pilgrim Stephen Novgorodets saw the relics at the Constantinople monastery named for St Andrew of Crete.

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